- bheu-, bheu̯ǝ- (bhu̯ā-, bhu̯ē-) : bhō̆ u- : bhū-
- bheu-, bheu̯ǝ- (bhu̯ā-, bhu̯ē-) : bhō̆ u- : bhū-English meaning: to be; to growDeutsche Übersetzung: ursprũnglich “wachsen, gedeihen”Note: (probably = “to swell”), compare O.Ind. prábhūta-ḥ with O.Ind. bhūri-ḥ etc under *b(e)u-, bh(e)u- “inflate, bloat, to swell”, from which “originate, become, be”, farther “ where usually one is, live “; io̯ /ī- present bhu-̯ iiō̯ , bhu-̯ iie̯ -si, bhu-̯ ī-si etc as verb “be” supplies often paradigm of es- “be”; extended root bheu̯ī-, bhu̯ēi-Material: O.Ind. bhávati “is, there is, happens, prospers, becomes “ = Av. bavaiti “ becomes, originates; happens; will be “, O.Pers. bavatiy “becomes”; Fut. O.Ind. bhavišyá ti, Av. būšyeiti participle būšyant- “ will come into existence “ (latter = Lith. bū́ siu, Church Slavic byšę šteje “τὸ μέλλον”, compare Gk. φύ̄σω); Aor. O.Ind. ábhūt (= Gk. ἔφῡ) and bhúvat, perf. babhū́ va, participle perf. Akt. babhūvǘ n, f. babhūvú šī (: Gk. πεφυώς, πεφυυῖα, Lith. bùvo, O.C.S. byvati), Inf. bhávitum, Absol. bhūtvǘ (compare Lith. bū́ tų passive “to be”, O.Pruss. būton Inf.); O.Ind. bhūtá -ḥ, Av. būta- “become, being, O.Ind. bhūtá -m “entity” (: Lith. búta “ been “, O.Ice. būð f. “dwelling”, Russ. bytъ “entity, way of life, lifestyle “; with ŭ Gk. φυτόν, O.Ir. - both “ one was “, both f. “cottage”, Lith. bùtas “house”); prá-bhūta-ḥ “rich, numerous”, Pers. Inf. būdan “be”; O.Ind. bhū́ ti-ḥ, bhūtí -ḥ f. “being, well-being, good condition, prospering; flourishing “ (Av. būti- m. “name daēva”? = O.C.S. za-, po-, prě-bytь, Russ. bytь, Inf. O.C.S. byti, Lith. bū́ ti; with ŭ Gk. φύσις). pass. O.Ind. bhūyate ; kaus. bhüvayati “ brings into existence; looks after and nurtures, refreshes “, participle bhüvita-ḥ also “ pleasantly excited, in good mood “ (=O.C.S. iz-baviti “free, release”), with ders. lengthened grade bhüvá -ḥ “being, development, becoming, affection “ (: Russ. za-báva f. “conversation, entertainment”) besides bhavá-ḥ “ development, welfare, salvation”; bhavítram “world” (ablaut. with Gk. φύτλᾱ “nature, gender, sex” and Lith. būklà “dwelling” etc, and with Gmc. *buÞla- and *bōÞla-, next to which with formants -dhlo- Cz. bydlo); bhavana-m “the development, becoming; dwelling, house (: Alb. bane, but M.Ir. būan “unwavering, steadfast” from *bhou-no-), ablaut. bhúvana-m “entity”; O.Ind. bhū́ - f. “earth, world”, bhū́ mī, bhū́ miḥ -, Av. ap. būmī-, Pers. būm “earth”, O.Ind. bhū́ man- n. “earth, world, being” (= Gk. φῦμα), bhūmá n- m. “fullness, wealth, bulk, mass, wealth “; pra-bhú-ḥ “mighty, salient “; s-stem bhaviṣ-ṇu-ḥ “becoming, thriving”, bhū́ ṣ ati “makes thrive, strengthens”, bhūṣ ayati “ bedecks, blazons “, bhūṣ ana-m “amulet, jewellery”. The ī-basis *bh(e)u̯ī-, as it seems, in O.Ind. bṓ bhavīti Intens. and bhávī-tva-ḥ “future”; about Iran. bī-forms see under. Arm. bois, gen. busoy ‘sprout, herb, plant”, busanim “ burst forth, spring forth “, further perhaps boin, gen. bunoi “nest” (*bheu-no-), zero grade bun, gen. bnoi ‘stem”. Thrak. PN Κασί-βουνον. Gk. φύω (Lesb. φυίω as Osc. fuia, see under), “beget” (Aor. ἔφυσα), φύομαι “become, grow” (compare Schwyzer Gk. I, 686), probably neologisms to Aor. ἔφῡν “was, became”, besides (neologism?) ἐφύην; φυτόν “growth, plant, kid, child, ulcer”, φυή “growth; nature, character”, φῦμα n. “plant, growth, ulcer”, φύσις “nature”, φῦλον n. ‘stem, gender, sex, kind of”, φῡλή “ municipality and from it located department “ (:O.C.S. bylъ, l-participle bylьje); lengthened grades *bhōlo- perhaps in φωλεός, φωλειός “hiding place, nook, bolt-hole, den of wild animals”, φωλεύω “ sleep in a cave “, φωλίς “ a sea fish which is hidden in the mud “; but O.Ice. bōl n. “ a camp for animals and people “, is not from bōl (probably from *bōÞla) “dwelling” miscellaneous word; in addition zero grade Swe. dial. bylja, bölja ‘small nest” from *bulja. As 2. compound-part in ὑπερφυής, ὑπερ-φ[*F]ίαλος. About φῖτυ see under. Illyr. VN Buni, PN Bοῦννος (: Alb. bunë). Messap. βύριον οἴκημα, βαυρία οἰκία Hes. (:O.H.G. būr); Alb. buj, bûj (*bunjō) ‘stay, stay overnight, spend the night “, burr, burrë (*buro-) “man, husband”, banë “dwelling, abode, residence, half dilapidated house “ (*bhou̯onü: O.Ind. bhavanam), banoj ‘stay, dwell”; bun(ë) “chalet” (*bhunü); perhaps also bōtë “earth, bottom, world, people” (*bhu̯ü-tü or *bhu̯ē-tü).Note: Clearly Alb. banë, Illyr. VN Buni, PN Bοῦννος, Messap. βύριον, Thrak. PN Κασί-βουνον prove that Illyr. was indeed a satem language displaying also centum characteristics. The common Alb. shift t > nt > n inherited from Illyr. and Thrac. proves the common origin of those Balkan lang. Lat. fuī (aLat. fūī) “I have been” from *fū-ai, rearrangement of older Aor. *fūm (= Gk. ἔ- φῡν, O.Ind. á-bhūt “ he was “), fu-tūrus “ future, about to be “, forem “would be”, fore “ will be “, aLat. Konj. fuam, fuat “be” (*bhuu̯üm; compare Lith. bùvo “was” from *bhu-u̯üt), besides -bam (*bhu̯üm : Osc. fu-fans “ they were “, O.Ir. -bü “ I was “) in legē-bam etc, compare Lat.-fal. -bō (from *bhu̯ō) in amü-bō, aLat. venī-bō, fal. pipafÞ etc with dem Ir. bfuture (do-rīmiub “ I will enumerate “ from *to-rīm-ī-bu̯ō), intensive futüvit “ he/she was “; Osc. fu-fans “ they were “, fu-fens “ they were “, fusíd = Lat. foret, fust (= Umbr. fust) “ he/she will be “ and “ he/she will have been “, fuid Konj.-perf. “ he/she will have been “; but about futír “daughter” s. Vetter Gl. 29, 235, 242 ff. against WH. I 557, 867; Umbr. fust “he/she is going to be”, furent “ they are going to be “ (*fuset, *fusent), fefure “ they will have been “, futu “ you will be “ (fuu̯etōd or fu-tōd). A i̯o/ī- present to root *bhū̆ - : *bhu̯-ii̯ō lies before in Lat. fīō, fī̆ erī “ of persons and things, to be made, come into existence; with predicate, to become, be appointed; with genit., to be valued at; of actions, to be done; of events, to happen “, the ī instead of ĭ is correlated to fīs, fīt (*bhu̯-ī-si, *bhu̯-ī-ti); Osc. fiiet (*bhu̯ii̯ent) “ they become, they are made”, Umbr. fito “ good deeds, benefits?”, fuia “ he/she will become, he/she will be made “, fuiest “ he/she will make “ (*bhu-i̯ō besides *bhu̯ii̯ō as in Lesb. φυίω, see above); Lat. nominal formation only in dubius “doubtful; act., wavering; in opinion, doubting; uncertain; as to action, hesitating, irresolute; pass., uncertain, doubted, doubtful, dangerous, critical “ (*du-bhu̯-ii̯o-s “ of double form, consisting of two parts “, compare Umbr. di-fue “ split into two parts “ < *du̯i-bhui̯om), probus “ good, excellent, fine; morally good, upright, virtuous, right “ (*pro-bhu̯os : O.Ind. pra-bhú-ḥ “ salient, superb “), Osc. amprufid “ dishonest, lacking probity “, prúfatted “ has shown, marked, indicated, manifested, proven “, Umbr. prufe “ upright, honest, proper “; Lat. super-bus “ haughty, exalted, proud; arrogant, overbearing; brilliant, splendid “. About Lat. moribundus see Niedermann Mé l. Meillet 104, Benveniste MSL. 34, 189. O.Ir. baë “benefit” (*bhu̯ǝ-i̯om), būan ‘steadfast, good” (*bhouno-, in addition Welsh bun “queen, wife, woman”); M.Ir. baile “home, place” (*bhu̯ǝ-lii̯o-); O.Ir. buith “be” (originally dat. of ü- stem both < *bhutü = Welsh bod, Corn. bos, Bret. bout = O.Ir. both f. “cottage”, Welsh bod f. “dwelling”: Lith. bùtas “house”; moreover also M.Ir. for-baid “ burial cloth, shroud, barrow, bier”), Fut. -bīa “ will be “ (= Lat. fiat), preterit 1. sg. bü (*bhu̯üm), 3. sg. boī (*bhōu̯ e), pass. preterit -both “ one was “ (*bhu-to-); the paradigm of the verb Subst. and the copula exists from forms von es- and bheu-, e.g. hat 1. sg. present Konj. O.Ir. bēu (*bh-esō) the anlaut related to bheu-; O.Ir. -bīu “ I care to be “, M.Welsh bydaf, Corn. bethaf, M.Bret. bezaff ds. (*bhu̯ii̯ō = Lat. fīō, besides *bhu̯ī- in O.Ir. bīth, M.Welsh bit “ ([Imperative Future Tense] you will be “ = Lat. fīt); Gaul. PN Vindo-bios (*-bhu̯ii̯os), compare Welsh gwyn-fyd “luck” (“weiße world”, byd), O.Ir. su-b(a)e “pleasure, joy” (*su-bhu̯ii̯o-), du-b(a)e (du = Gk. δυς-) “mourning, grief”; Goth. bauan ‘stay, dwell, inhabit”, ald bauan “ lead a life “, gabauan “erect a house” (*bhōu̯ ō, vocalism as in O.Ind. bhüvayati, bhüva-ḥ, Slav. baviti), O.Ice. būa (bjō, būinn) ‘stay, dwell, bring in good condition, equip “, O.E. būan and buw(i)an (būde, gebūen) ‘stay, dwell, farm” (besides O.E. bōgian, O.Fris. bōgia ‘stay, dwell”, phonetic type based on Goth. stōja from *stōwijō and ō as initial vowel), O.H.G. būan (būta, gibūan) ‘stay, dwell, farm”, Ger. bauen; O.Ice. byggja “ live at a place, farm, populate”, later “ construct, build” (from *buwwjan?*bewwjan?); O.Ice. bū n. “domicile, household “, O.E. bū n. “dwelling” (pl. by n. of i-stem *būwi- = O.Ice. bȳr m. “dwelling, residential site, court “; similarly Lith. būvis “ permanent stay, residence “), O.H.G. bū, M.H.G. bū, gen. būwes m., seldom n. “ tilling of the field, dwelling, edifice”, Ger. Bau; O.Ice. būð f. “dwelling, tent, cottage”; O.S. bōÞ, M.L.G. bōde, M.H.G. buode and būde “ cottage, tent “, Ger. Bude (*bhō[u]-tü); M.L.G. bōdel “fortune”, bōl “estate”, O.E. bold and botl n. “dwelling, house”, *byldan, Eng. to build “to build”, O.Fris. bold and bōdel “house, household utensil, household appliance, property” (*bōÞla- from IE *bhō[u]tlo- and *buÞla-, compare Lith. būklà and Westsl. bydlo), also O.Ice. bōl n. “dwelling” [(see above also to bōl “ den (of animals) “]; O.Ice. būr n. “ pantry, zenana (part of a house for women in India)”, O.E. būr m. “cottage, room”, O.H.G. būr m. “house, cage”, Ger. (Vogel-)Bauer, whereof O.H.G. nühgibūr, O.E. nēahgebūr, Ger. Nachbar, Eng. neighbour and O.H.G. gibūr(o), M.H.G. gebūr(e), then būr, Ger. Bauer “ farmer, peasant “; O.E. bēo “ I am “ (*bhu̯ii̯ō = Lat. fīō, O.Ir. -bīu), besides bēom, O.H.G. bim etc after *im from *es- “be”, as O.H.G. bis(t), O.E. bis after is. Perhaps Goth. bagms, O.H.G. bōum, O.E. bēam “tree” from *bhou̯(ǝ)mo- “φυτόν” and O.Ice. bygg n. “barley”, O.S. gen. PL bewō ‘sowing, seed, yield”, O.E. bēow n. “barley” (*bewwa-) as “ the tilled, the sown “. Maybe Alb. (*bēam) bimë “plant”, Alb.Gheg ba “ripen, become”, bafsh sub. “be! “ Lith. bū́ ti (Ltv. bût, O.Pruss. boūt) “be”, bū́ tų Supin. “to be” (O.Pruss. būton Inf.), participle bū́ tas “ been “, Fut. bū́ siu (Ltv. bûšu), preterit bùvo “he was” (compare also buvó-ju, -ti “ care to be “ and O.C.S. Iter. byvati); Opt. O.Pruss. bousai “he is”, preterit bēi, be “he was” (from an expanded basis with -ēi-); Lith. bū̃ vis m. “being, life”, buvine ́ti “ stay here and there a while “, O.Pruss. buwinait “live!”; Ltv. bûšana “being, entity, condition “, O.Pruss. bousennis ‘state, condition “; Lith. bùtas, O.Pruss. (acc.) buttan “house”; Lith. būklas (*būtla-) “ nest, den, hideout, lair of wild animals “, pabū̃ klas “ tool, utensil; apparition, ghost”, būklà , būkle ̃ “ presence (of mind), dwelling”, E.Lith. búklė ds. (see above; in addition buklùs “wise, sly, cunning”); O.C.S. byti “become, be”, lo- participle bylъ “ been “ (therefrom bylьje “herb; healthy herb “, compare to meaning φυτόν), Aor. bě “was” (*bhu̯ē-t); Imperf. běaše, Fut. participle Church Slavic byšę šteje, byšą šteje “τὸ μέλλον”, Kondiz. 3. pl. bǫ (*bhu̯ü-nt), participle za-bъvenъ “forgotten”, besides miscellaneous participle *byt e.g. in Russ. zabūtyj “forgotten”, compare in addition also Subst. Russ. bytъ “entity, way of life, lifestyle “ under likewise, O.Pol. byto “nourishment, food”, O.C.S. iz-bytъkъ “ affluence, remnant “ under likewise, bytьje “ the existence “; maybe Alb. mbetje “residue, leftover”, mbetet “is left”, mbeturinë “trash” [common Alb. b- > mb- shift] O.C.S. zabytь “ oblivion “, pobytь “victory”, prěbytь “abode, residence”, Russ. bytь “entity, creature; facts (of the case), facts (of the matter), matter of fact “; present O.C.S. bǫdǫ “become, γίγνομαι”, as Fut.: “will become” (if Lat. adj. in -bundus?); maybe reduced Alb. (*bǫdǫ) do Future: “will become” Kaus. O.C.S. izbaviti “free, release” under likewise (: O.Ind. bhüva-yati, compare to vocalism also Goth. bauan and O.C.S. zabava “ stay, activity, pastime”); Cz. bydlo “ whereabouts, dwelling”, Pol. bydɫo “cattle” (from *’state, prosperity, possessions “). Maybe Alb. (*zabava) zbavit “entertain, (*pastime) “ Perhaps here (Pedersen Toch. 2281) Toch. В pyautk-, A pyotk-, AB pyutk- “ come into being “, med. “ bring about “. From the basis bh(e)u̯ī-: Pers. Imp. bī-d “be!”; O.Pers. Opt. bī-yüh is placed by Wackernagel KZ. 46, 270 = O.Ind. bhū-yǘ -ḥ, -t; Gk. φῖτυ n. “germ, sprout, scion, shoot” = φίτῡμα, φῑτύω “ produce, sow, plant”; Lith. alt. bit(i) “he was”, also Kondit. 1. pl. (sùktum-) bime; Ltv. biju, bija “I was, he was” (Ltv. bijü- extended from athemat. *bhu̯ī-); ablaut. O.Pruss. bēi, see above; maybe Alb. bujis “germ, sprout, scion, shoot, bloom” O.C.S. Kondit. 2. 3. sg. bi “were, would be” (*bhu̯ī-s, *bhu̯ī-t), wherefore secondary 1. sg. bi-mь with primary ending.[u]References: WP. II 140 f., WH. I 375 f., 504 f., 557 f., 865, 867, EM. 812 f., 1004 f., Trautmann 40 f., Feist 83 f. Specht will place (KZ. 59, 58 f.) under citation of Gk. φάFος “light, salvation” = O.Ind. bhava- “ blessing; benediction, boon, salvation”, φαε-σί-μβροτος etc unsere root as *bhau̯ǝ- , not as *bheu̯ǝ-. see also above S. 91.
Proto-Indo-European etymological dictionary. 2015.